ლოგოსი https://logos.tsu.ge/index.php/logos <p>ლოგოსი - წელიწდეული ელინოლოგიასა და ლათინისტიკაში. თსუ კლასიკური ფილოლოგიის, ბიზანტინისტიკისა და ნეოგრეცისტიკის ინსტიტუტი. განახლებული, ბეჭდური და ელექტრონული, რეცენზირებადი გამოცემა.</p> ka-GE ( ) ( ) Mon, 27 Jun 2022 16:22:49 +0400 OJS 3.2.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 ბიზანტიელ ქალთა სახეები კონსტანტინოს კავაფისის ლექსების - „ანა კომნენეს“ და „ანა დალასინის“ - მიხედვით https://logos.tsu.ge/index.php/logos/article/view/4185 <p>Much of the poetry of the Modern Greek poet Constantine Cavafy deals with Byzantium, the Byzantine emperors, and Byzantine culture. Cavafy’s interest in Byzantium is evident early in his poetic career and manifests itself throughout his poetry. This interest was partly due to Cavafy's origins: The Alexandrian-born poet, who lived over two years in Constantinople, his mother's hometown, considered himself as&nbsp;the heir&nbsp;of the Byzantine world. Cavafy, as he himself claimed, was a ‘poet-historian.’ He composed poems and wrote history. Cavafy divided his historical and pseudo-historical poems into thematic categories. He grouped the poems on Byzantium and called the collection ‘Byzantine Days.’ The Alexandrian poet took a special interest in the Komnenos dynasty. This&nbsp;paper&nbsp;deals with two famous Byzantine female figures - Anna Komnene and Anna&nbsp;Dalassene, Alexios I Komnenos’ family members. In the paper, we will discuss the poems <em>Anna </em><em>K</em><em>omnene</em> and <em>Anna Dalassene</em> which Cavafy created based on the same historical source <em>Alexiad</em>, and see what is important and noteworthy to Cavafy, both as a historian and as a poet, how he uses historical information in his poems, how he expresses his poetic utterance based on that information, and how he creates the portraits of famous Byzantine women.</p> თეა გამრეკელი საავტორო უფლებები (c) 2022 https://logos.tsu.ge/index.php/logos/article/view/4185 Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0400 პლატონი, არისტოტელე და ავგუსტინე რწმენის, ცოდნისა და სიბრძნის შესახებ https://logos.tsu.ge/index.php/logos/article/view/4186 <p>The article shows how Plato, Aristotle and Augustine conceive relations between these concepts: belief (faith), knowledge and wisdom. In Plato’s philosophy sometimes belief (δόξα) is contrasted with knowledge (ἐπιστήμη). For him, people who hold true beliefs are like blinds who go the right way. Knowledge is much more valuable, as it’s the only way to grasp eternal and unchangeable things. Knowledge is the highest form of grasping the world for Aristotle too, but he is more optimistic about beliefs. For him endoxa (ἔνδοξα) – the beliefs of the many – are trustworthy and important part of the philosophy. As it regards wisdom (σοφία), both of the philosophers identify this concept with knowledge. Augustine considers that belief (credere) is inseparable from knowledge. When a human knows a thing, she/he also believes in it. Belief, faith (fides) is even wider than knowledge (scientia). Knowledge concerns only changeable things, whereas faith makes it possible to grasp unchangeable things. But grasping them is more perfect, when wisdom (sapientia) helps the faith. A knower can’t grasp unchangeable things, but wise men can make it by contemplating inner truth.</p> ანა ლომაძე საავტორო უფლებები (c) 2022 https://logos.tsu.ge/index.php/logos/article/view/4186 Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0400 'ქიმერების მარულა' (ფანტასმაგორია‚ მითის კულტი და ანტიკურობა ვალერიან გაფრინდაშვილის შემოქმედებაში) https://logos.tsu.ge/index.php/logos/article/view/4187 <p>The supreme aim of the poetic art lies in its aspiration for imagining visual images of the words. The impression made by the poetic icon/image is defined by the illusion of the secrecy and existence (of the icon). The most important in secrecy is the effect of symbol(ism), which has no effectively been manifested in the creative work of the Georgian modernists.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Valerian Gaprindashvili, the most important representative of the Georgian modernism, is not merely a port, but also the ideologist of the poetic reasoning of his era. His essays: “remarks/observation on lyrics”. “Terra Antiqua”, “a New Mythology”, “Elysium of Lyrics” “the Magic of Names”, and etc. can easily be accepted as the manifesto of the Georgian modernism.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Modernism in the Georgian poetic reasoning has been introduced in the form of essays, resisting the social pathos characteristic to "Tergdaleuli" publicism. The ideology of modernism inculcated by the poets and writers of a new generation crushed the worlviews, aesthetics and style existing in that era. Though, modernists were under the influence of European and Russian poetry, however, they did not forget the ancient tradition being inherited from the Georgian poetry. The representatives of the Georgian poetry have vigorously welcomed the aspiration for the renewal in every era. It has accepted and internalized the byzantine poetic art and produced brilliant pieces of hagiographic and hymnographic literature; it has accepted the specific eastern style of poetic reasoning, replenishing it own national style, which resulted in a unique masterpiece “The Knight in Panther's Skin”; David Guramishvili should also be specifically mentioned, whose name was reminded by Gaprindashvili to the Georgian society in the vast essay of 1919 ("David Guramishvili").</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Gaprindashvili was not a poet for the masses. A specific education and knowledge of versification is needed to comprehend his writings. His essays were also specifically designed for the readers with respective knowledge, since they were rich with analogies, parallels, comparisons, metaphors and etc... The special attitude of the poet towards the myths as well as the historic figures of the ancient world was evident in his writings. During his short lifespan he was constantly engaged in enriching his knowledge and searched for the magic in names, beauty in horror and terror, Apollonian and Dionysian elements in antiquity, and, the spiritual ancestors in the Georgian reality.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Valerian Gaprindashvili, a poet possessed with the secret force of poetry, had a sophisticated knowledge in the theory of art preaching “the necessity of phantasmagoria and the cult of myth, for overcoming the narrow margins of reality and ethnography” (essay: “New in the Georgian Poetry of 1922”). His creative work, which is loaded with the reminiscences of the antique world, attracts the attention of the reader with the symbolic interpretations of the images.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In Valerian Gaprindashvili’s iconic aesthetics of symbols the idea of myths appearing from symbols can be read, as well the possibility for myth-making, and the perception of the religious nature of the substance of art.</p> ნანა ტონია საავტორო უფლებები (c) 2022 https://logos.tsu.ge/index.php/logos/article/view/4187 Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0400 ეთერის კონცეფცია პტოლემაიოსის კოსმოლოგიაში https://logos.tsu.ge/index.php/logos/article/view/4188 <p>In the ancient Greek world, "aether" signified both the physical body and the embodied divinity. It took on diverse meanings for different authors, but its relationship with the sky, namely the higher levels of the sky, was evident in most cases. Aether became a useful tool for describing cosmogonic processes or heavenly movements and was elevated to the fifth element by Aristotle. Ptolemy, who was in agreement with Aristotle on the fifth element, broadened his studies in this field. Ptolemy "astrologized" the Aristotelian concept of "transfer" of etheric motions to earthly components by introducing the concept of celestial bodies influencing terrestrial elements.</p> გვანცა ფოფხაძე საავტორო უფლებები (c) 2022 https://logos.tsu.ge/index.php/logos/article/view/4188 Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0400 თვითერთის, საზღვარი-ერთისა და ჰენადების გაგება პროკლეს მეტაფიზიკაში https://logos.tsu.ge/index.php/logos/article/view/4189 <p>The present paper aims to understand functions and interrelationships of different types of the superessential One, which are the One Itself, the Limit-One, and Henads, in Proclus’ metaphysics. The paper is divided into six sections. In the first section, after thematizing general characteristics of a philosophical system and analyzing proposition 11 of <em>Elementatio theologica</em>, we emphasize Proclus’ systematic nature and point out some leitmotifs of his metaphysical (theological) system. In the second section, we elucidate the scientific character of the Proclean metaphysical (theological) theory, which shows in its precision and accuracy, differential certainty, methodological clarity, consistency, and rationality. The third section concerns Proclus’ conception of a cause and causal process, eventually resulting in the identification of the first real cause of everything with the first Limit, which is simultaneously the first real One for Proclus. In the fourth section, we deal with the Proclean understanding of the unspeakable cause (ἄρρητος αἰτία), which while being the One itself (αὐτοέν), is paradoxically better than the One. In the fifth section, we examine Henads and attempt to solve main issues related to this enigmatic part of Proclean metaphysics. In the last section, we sum up a relationship between the One itself, the Limit-One along with its counterpart, i.e. the Unlimited, and Henads.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> ანა ქირია საავტორო უფლებები (c) 2022 https://logos.tsu.ge/index.php/logos/article/view/4189 Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0400 ანტიკური წყაროები მიკენური ეპოქის არა¬ბერ¬ძენ ხალხთა შესახებ https://logos.tsu.ge/index.php/logos/article/view/4190 <p>According to the Ancient sources, numerous peoples and tribes of non-Greek origin, referred to as “barbarians” from a certain period, were populated in the basin of the Aegean Sea already before Greeks and also played a leading role in the continental Hellas. Nowadays, the information presented in the works of Ancient authors about non-Greek peoples and tribes living on the Aegean lands is a source of controversy among the scientific community.</p> <p>I believe it is partially possible to reconstruct the geographical and political situation of Aegean territory during the Bronze Age based on Ancient sources. We will try and examine the perception of ethnic, cultural and political situation of Aegeis by the Greeks in the Bronze Age. In this light it would be also interesting to perform the comparative analysis of topographical data preserved in Linear B inscriptions and Ancient Near Eastern written sources. This would aid us in deciding how real is the picture presented in the Ancient works.</p> <p>On the account of Linear B inscriptions, the topographical data preserved in the Egyptian and Hittite documents, and the archaeological material, it can be said that the geographical situation presented by the Ancient sources is mostly real. However, it would not be at all surprising if the records written by Ancient Greeks were not completely in accord with the geographical and political situation of Greece and Middle East in the Bronze Age, considering the significant time difference between the Mycenaean palace culture and Hellenistic and Classical Greece. This detail would undoubtedly contribute to the alteration and, hence, the imprecise nature of the information.</p> ლელა ჩოთალიშვილი საავტორო უფლებები (c) 2022 https://logos.tsu.ge/index.php/logos/article/view/4190 Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0400 მეტყველების წრის ზმნის პირიანი და უპირო ფორმების (მიმღეობების) გადმოტანა ბიბლიის ქართულ ვერსიებში (მცირე წინასწარმეტყველთა წიგნების მიხედვით) https://logos.tsu.ge/index.php/logos/article/view/4191 <p>It is well known that the Septuagint Greek is characterized by the use of more than one (as a rule, two) verbs and verbals (participles) of saying<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a> before the direct speech, which is a Semitism, for instance: Amos 7:14: <em>καὶ <strong>ἀπεκρίθη</strong> Αμως καὶ <strong>εἶπεν</strong> πρὸς Αμασιαν</em> LXX. &nbsp;<strong><em>მიუგო</em></strong><em> ამოს და <strong>ჰრქუა </strong>ამასიას:</em>&nbsp; OJ. <em>და <strong>მიუგო</strong> ამმოს და <strong>თქუა</strong> ამასიაჲს მიმართ: </em>SB. <em>Then <strong>answered</strong> Amos, and <strong>said </strong>to Amaziah</em> KJV. &nbsp;The aim of the given paper is to analyze the issue of translation of the verbs and participles of saying into Georgian. With this aim, I have compared the old Georgian translation (<em>Bibles of</em> <em>Oshki</em> (978-979) and <em>Jerusalem</em> (11<sup>th</sup> c.)) of all the twelve books of the Minor Prophets with the Georgian version of the Hellenophile period (Preserved in the <em>Bibles of</em> <em>Gelati</em> (12<sup>th </sup>-13<sup>th</sup> cc.), <em>Saba</em> (17<sup>th </sup>-18<sup>th</sup> cc.) and <em>Bakar</em> (1743)).</p> <p>&nbsp;Observation of the Georgian versions of the Bible has proved that the earlier translator takes more account of the nature of the Georgian language. Therefore, the old versions of the Bible occupy a somewhat intermediate position between the formal and dynamic translations, whereas the translator-revisor of the Hellenophile period tries hard to preserve formal-structural or semantic equivalence with the Greek language. The examples of usage of two forms of verbs of saying before the direct speech are sometimes found in the original Georgian hagiography (5<sup>th </sup>-11<sup>th</sup> cc.).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> ინგლისური ტერმინისთვის იხ. &nbsp;Wallace 1966, 649; Blass and Debrunner 1961, 170, 204 და სხვ.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ლელა ციხელაშვილი საავტორო უფლებები (c) 2022 https://logos.tsu.ge/index.php/logos/article/view/4191 Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0400